Content of the material
What is Policy-Based Routing?
Policy-Based Routing (PBR) is a very popular feature in Cisco routers, it allows the creation of policies that can selectively alter the path that packets take within the network. Policy-Based Routing can be used to mark packets so that certain types of traffic are prioritized over the rest, sent to a different destination or exist via a different physical interface on the router.
Classification of interesting traffic is performed using Access-Control Lists (ACLs). These can be standard, extended or named access lists as we know them.
Once the interesting traffic is ‘matched’ with the use of ACLs, the router will perform the configured ‘set’ function which is defined by the Administrator. This ‘set’ function essentially tells the router what to do with the matched traffic and can include sending it to another gateway, dropping it, prioritizing it over other traffic, and much more.
Using Your Router
Everyone has a router, and you can access it from nearly any device on your network. All your traffic already flows through the router, so it’s the most direct source of information about what’s going on within the network.
You’re going to need to find out your router’s IP address. For most routers it’s 192.168.1.1, unless someone changed it. If you’r not sure, open a command prompt, and run ipconfig. On Mac and Linux, run ip r. On Windows, you’ll find your router’s IP listed as the Gateway. On Linux, it’ll be next to default via.
Open your web browser and enter the router’s IP address in the address bar. This is exactly like browsing to a website, so press Enter after you enter the IP address.
You’ll probably be prompted to enter your router’s admin username and password before you can go any further. If you didn’t set them yourself, your ISP probably did when the set it up. Look for any documentation they may have provided to sign in.
Every router is different, and so are their interfaces. When you first sign in to most, you’ll arrive at a basic status page. It’ll show you information about your router and your network that may be useful, but not too in-depth. Try to find a Device List link to see which devices are connected to the network.
Your router’s device list will show you the IP addresses of the devices connected to the network. It may even provide a bit of information about what they are. You will usually see a computer’s name next to the IP, if one was set. Here, you’ll also be able to see connection information for Wi-Fi devices, including their signal quality and the available bandwidth.
Have a look around for a Status section on your router. You might be lucky enough to even have a specific Bandwidth or Network Monitoring section. It’s under a section like this that you’ll be able to find more data about bandwidth usage of specific devices by IP address.
When you locate your router’s traffic or bandwidth monitoring sections, you’ll be able to see which devices are using the most bandwidth. You’ll see transmission rates and other useful stats. In some cases, you may find graphs and even real-time monitoring that provide visualization of what’s happening on your network.
With this information, you’ll be able to find out what your networks biggest hogs are and what devices might be struggling to get a decent signal. You’ll also be able to see if anyone’s weaseled their way onto your network when they shouldn’t be there.
How to monitor network traffic on your router
When monitoring network traffic you have the choice of monitoring directly through the router or using third-party network monitoring software. In this section, we will look at how you can use a router to monitor your network traffic. Before we begin, it’s important to note that the process will depend on the brand and model of your router. However, there are standard procedures for examining a router regardless of vendor and whether it is a router for a wired or a wireless network:
- If you want to use your router to monitor network traffic then you first need to find your router’s local IP address. If you haven’t changed the IP address then it’s likely to be 192.168.1.1.
- On Windows if you don’t know the IP address then open a command prompt and enter the following command:
You will find your IP address listed next to Default Gateway, which will look something like this:
- Now that you have the IP address, open up your web browser and type the IP address into the search bar. Now press Enter.
- A page will display that asks you to enter your router’s admin username and password. If you haven’t configured a unique username and password you should check the router’s documentation to find the default login credentials. (You can also search online for information on a vendor’s factory settings).
- Once logged in you will be able to interact with the router’s interface. What performance data you can view at this stage depends on the vendor who produced it. Try to look for a list of devices or a status section (some modern routers have bandwidth monitoring sections).
- Once you find a section that displays network traffic you can start to look for which devices use the most bandwidth. If you don’t find this information or there isn’t enough detail then you’ll need to use a network monitoring tool instead.
Related post: Wireshark & other top packet sniffers
Monitoring router traffic with a network monitoring tool
Though there are countless ways to monitor router traffic we recommend that you download a network monitoring tool for the best results. Even the best routers can only show you so much information. Using a specialized network usage monitoring solution will provide you with much better visibility.
Tools like Wireshark, SolarWinds NetFlow Traffic Analyzer, PRTG Network Monitor, and ManageEngine NetFlow Analyzer are all ideal for monitoring network traffic in modern enterprises.
Router accepted connections
Reports on router connection logs allow you to review accepted connections to visualize the kind of traffic navigating through your network. View information on all successful connections based on authorization, source, destination, protocol, and trend.
Differential Pair Routing
EasyEDA provide a easy experience for the differential pair routing.Via: Top Menu – Route – Differential Pair Routing
You must make sure the Differential Pair net names must be
XXX_N, XXX_P or
and you need to set Differential Pair net rule at the “Top Menu – Tool – Design Rule” first.
How to route Differential Pair:
1.Set the Differential Pair net name as
XXX+,XXX-, and set the rule for the Differential Pair net at the “Design Rule”
2.Click the menu
Top Menu - Route - Differential Pair Routing
3.Click the one pad of the Differential Pair pads
- Only for 45 degrees routing, doesn’t support hotkey L and Space key.
- Doesn’t support the fanout routing.
- Doesn’t support the DRC blocking.
- When finish previous routing location too close with the finish pads, the track will generate the extra segments, please finish the previous location far away from finish pads.
Cloud Auto Router
For some simple or prototype PCBs, you may want to use the auto router function to save time. Layout is a time costly and dull job. EasyEDA spends lots of time to provide such a feature and it is loved by our users.Before using the auto router, you need to set the board outline for the PCB.
Auto router is not good enough! Suggest routing manually! You can use “RoundTrack(Walk Arroud)” option to route tracks, via right-hand panel – Routing Conflict.
1 Click the the auto router button from the Top Menu”Top Menu> Route > Auto Router”
2 Config the auto router
After you click that button, you will get a config dialog like in the image below.
In the config dialog, you can set some rules to make the auto router result professional. These rule must equalize or more than DRC setting.
- Unit: The unit follows PCB canvas unit.
- Track width: The auto-route track width.
- Clearance: The clearance of the objects.
- Via Diameter/Via Drill Diameter: The via placing by auto-router.
- Realtime Display: when you select it , the real time routing status will show on.
- Router Server:
- Cloud: Using EasyEDA online server.
- Local: Using the local auto router server, when you click the Auto Router icon, the editor will check the local router server available or not automatically. How to use please see as below.
- Router Layers: If you want to route inner layer, you have to enable the inner layer first.
- Special Nets: For the power supply track, you may want it to be bigger, so you can add some special rules.
- Skip Nets: If you like to keep the a net with no route, you can skip it. For example, if you want to use copper area to connect
GNDnet, you can skip the
GNDnet. If you want to reserve the routed track, you need to select the
Skip Routed Nets.
3 Run it
After click the “Run” button , The real time check box will let you see how it is going, but it will make the process a little bit slow.
Waiting for a few minutes, after adding bottom and top copper area, you will get a finished PCB board.
When finish, will pop up a window.
The connection means the track connect times.
- The parameter can’t less than DRC rule, otherwise will report error.
This section presents the information to configure the features described in this document.
This document uses this network setup. In this scenario, R1 is connected to two different ISPs (ISP-1 and ISP-2). R1 tracks the reachability to both ISP routers.
This document uses this configuration:
Route-Map IP SLA Statistics
Keeping a close eye on the router’s route-map & IP SLA performance can be achieved with the use of a few simple commands. Monitoring your route-map’s performance the first couple of days is a very good idea as it will help verify that traffic is still being redirected to the host.
On the other hand, looking at IP SLA statistics will help identify possible failures or changes of state which were not noticed by anyone.
The show route-map command is a favourite as it combines enough information to help verify everything is working as it should:R1# show route-map route-map linux-proxy, permit, sequence 1 Match clauses: ip address (access-lists): http-traffic Set clauses: ip next-hop verify-availability 192.168.150.10 1 track 1 [up] Policy routing matches: 3864291 packets, 511957007 bytes
The numbers shown here verify immediately that our host is reachable (up) and that R1 has redirected more than 510MB of traffic through the Linux proxy!
The show IP SLA statistics command provides in a similar way useful information that helps verify the object tracking is working correctly and the tracked host is up:R1# show ip sla statisticsIPSLAs Latest Operation StatisticsIPSLA operation id: 1Latest RTT: 1 millisecondsLatest operation start time: *21:36:47.855 UTC Tue Apr 3 2012Latest operation return code: OKNumber of successes: 16Number of failures: 0Operation time to live: ForeverBack to Cisco Routers Section